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Political Science

POLITICAL SCIENCE QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. ACEMYHOMEWORK.COM

Affirmative action government policies or programs that seek to redress past injustices again specified groups by making special efforts to prodive members of these groups with access to educational and emplpyment opportunities Error! Filename not specified. Anti-federalists those who favored strong state governments and a weak national government and were opponents of the constitution Error! Filename not specified. Authoritarian system (government) a system of rule in which the government recognize no formal limit but may nevertheless be restrained by the power of other social institutions Error! Filename not specified. Block grants federal grants-in-aid that allow states considerable discretion in how the funds are spent Error! Filename not specified. Boston Massacre The first bloodshed of the American Revolution (1770), as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd killing five Americans Error! Filename not specified. Boston Tea Party A 1773 protest against British taxes in which Boston colonists disguised as Mohawks dumped valuable tea into Boston Harbor. Error! Filename not specified. Bourgeoisie A social class that derives social and economic power from employment, education, and wealth, as opposed to the inherited power of aristocratic family of titled land owners or feudal privileges. It's a term for the middle class common in the 19th century. It's characterized by their ownership of property and their related culture. Error! Filename not specified. Categorical grants congressional grants given to states and localities in the condition that expenditures be limited to a problem or group specified by the law Error! Filename not specified. Checks and balances mechanisms through which each branch of government is able to participate in and influence the activities of the other branches; major examples include the presidential veto power over congressional legislation, the power of the Senate to approve presidential appointments, and judicial review of congressional enactment Error! Filename not specified. Civil liberties areas of personal freedom constitutionally protected from government interference Error! Filename not specified. Civil rights obligation imposed on government to take a positive action to protect citizens from any illegal action of government agencies and of other private citizens Error! Filename not specified. Civil Rights Act (1964) law under Johnson that made segregation illegal in all public facilities, Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Online professional tutoring has never been this effective. At www.acemy-homework.com, the proficiency in offering help to students on their college assignments from higher learning institutions across the globe has been tested and proven. www.acemy-homework.com not only assist students through a virtual platform but also provide a platform for you as the client to converse with your tutor in real time. When it comes to service provision, Acemy-homework.com is an unmatched website. Register at www.acemy-homework.com today and begin an exciting journey in academic proficiency. Commerce clause Congress has the power to regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states and with the Indigenous Tribes Error! Filename not specified. The Commerce Clause can be found in _______ of the Constitution Article 1, Section 8 The Clause of Commerce can be interrupted by ________ in favor of national power over the economy the Supreme Court Commercial speech Communication in the form of advertising. It can be restricted more than many other types of speech but has been receiving increased protection from the Supreme Court. Confederation a system of government in which states retain sovereign authority except for the powers expressly delegate to the national government Connecticut or Great Compromise The agreement that the national legislature of the United States would have two houses, with representation in one based on population, and equal representation per state in the other, was called the ______ Cooperative federalism a type of federalism existing since the New Deal era in which grants-in-aid have been used strategically to encourage states and localities (without commanding them) to pursue nationally defined goals; also known as "intergovernmental cooperation" Cruel and unusual punishment Court sentences prohibited by the Eighth Amendment. Although the Supreme Court has ruled that mandatory death sentences for certain offenses are unconstitutional, it has not held that the death penalty itself constitutes cruel and unusual punishment. Online professional tutoring is getting better and better each day. At www.acemy-homework.com, the proficiency in offering help to students on their college diverse needs from higher learning institutions across the globe has been tested and proven. www.acemy-homework.com not only assist students through a virtual platform but also provide a platform for you as the client to converse with your tutor in real-time. When it comes to service provision, Acemy-homework.com is an unmatched website. Register at www.acemy-homework.com today and begin an exciting journey in academic proficiency. Defamation Act of harming or ruining another's reputation Democratic system a system of rule that permits citizens to play a significant part in the governmental process, usually through the election of key public officials Dual federalism the system of government that prevailed in the United States from 1789 to 1937 in which most fundamental governmental powers were shared between the shared Eminent domain the right of government to take private property for public use Equal protection clause citizens are guaranteed "the equal protection of the laws"; this clause has served as the basis for civil rights of African Americans, women, and other group The equal protection clause is the ______ amendment fourteenth Establishment clause "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion"; this law means that a "wall of separation" exists between church and state The Establishment clause is the ____ amendment first Exclusionary rule Online professional tutoring is getting better and better each day. 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Register at www.acemy-homework.com today and begin an exciting journey in academic proficiency. the ability of courts to exclude evidence obtained in violation of the fourth amendment Expressed powers specific powers granted by the Constitution to Congress and to the president Federalism a system of government in which power is divided, by a constitution, between the central (national) and regional (state) government/s Federalists those who favor a strong national government and supported the constitution proposed at the Americana Constitutional Convention of 1787 Fighting words speech that directly incites damaging conduct First Continental Congress took place on September 5 to October 26, 1774 First Constitutional Convention was held May 14, 1787 Formula grants Federal categorical grants distributed according to a formula specified in legislation or in administrative regulations. Free exercise clause a.k.a the First amendment Error! Filename not specified. French-Indian War in 1754 the British were trying to evict the French from the land west of the Appalachian Mountains - the British won - there were still land restrictions bc of the threat of the native americans - end of salutary neglect Error! Filename not specified. Full faith and credit clause requires the state normally honor the public acts and judicial decisions that take place in another state Full faith and credit clause is provision from _________ of the constitution Article IV (4), Section 1 Gay rights Historically, the United States has struggled with majority rule and the extension of minority rights. As a result of this struggle, the government has increasingly extended civil rights to marginalized groups and broadened opportunities for participation. Grants in aid money given by the national government to the states Online professional tutoring has never been this effective. At www.acemy-homework.com, the proficiency in offering help to students on their college assignments from higher learning institutions across the globe has been tested and proven. www.acemy-homework.com not only assist students through a virtual platform but also provide a platform for you as the client to converse with your tutor in real time. When it comes to service provision, Acemy-homework.com is an unmatched website. Register at www.acemy-homework.com today and begin an exciting journey in academic proficiency. Home rule allows cities to write their own charters, choose their own type of government, and manage their own affairs Intolerable Acts series of laws passed in 1774 to punish Boston for the Tea Party The Supreme Court asserted the power of Judicial review in Marbury v. Madison (1803) Laissez-faire capitalism An economic system in which the means of production and distribution are privately owned and operated by for profit with minimal or no government interference Lemon test The three-part test for Establishment Clause cases that a law must pass before it is declared constitutional: it must have a secular purpose; it must neither advance nor inhibit religion; and it must not cause excessive entanglement with religion. Libel A written statement made in "reckless disregard of the truth" that is considered damaging to a victim because it is "malicious, scandalous, and defamatory" Liberty Freedom from governmental control Miranda rule The requirement that persons under arrest must be informed prior to people interrogation of their rights to remain silent and to have the benefit to legal counsel The Miranda rule was articulated but the ____________ in ___________ (1966) Supreme Court; Miranda v. Arizona Necessary and proper clause Congress has to the authority to make all laws necessary and proper to carry out its expressed powers New federalism Attempts by president Nixon and Reagan to return power to the states through block grants New Jersey Plan Called for equal state representation in the national legislature regardless of population The New Jersey Plan was in introduced by William Paterson Obscenity Quality or state of a work that taken as a whole appeals to a prurient interest in sex by depicting sexual conduct in a patently offensive way and that lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value. Police powers power reserved to the state government to regulate the health, safety, and morals of its citizens Political efficacy The ability to influence government and politics Political equality the right to participate in politics equally, based in the principle of "one person, one vote" Political speech Speech about political issues, almost completely protected under First Amendment. Online professional tutoring is getting better and better each day. At www.acemy-homework.com, the proficiency in offering help to students on their college diverse needs from higher learning institutions across the globe has been tested and proven. www.acemy-homework.com not only assist students through a virtual platform but also provide a platform for you as the client to converse with your tutor in real-time. When it comes to service provision, Acemy-homework.com is an unmatched website. Register at www.acemy-homework.com today and begin an exciting journey in academic proficiency. Prior restraint an effort by a governmental agency to block the publication of material it deems libelous or harmful in some other way; censorship; in the United States, the courts forbid prior restraint except under the most extraordinary circumstances Proletariat Working class Revenue sharing A law providing for the distribution of a fixed amount or share of federal tax revenues to the states for spending on almost any government purpose. Right to counsel Individual right found in the Sixth Amendment of the Constitution that requires criminal defendants to have access to legal representation. Right to privacy The right to a private personal life free from the intrusion of government. Second Continental Congress Political authority that directed the struggle for independence beginning in 1775. Second Constitutional Convention established in 1908 after the young turk revolution. forced the revival of constitutional monarchy and the ottoman parliament. Selective incorporation The process by which provisions of the Bill of Rights are brought within the scope of the Fourteenth Amendment and so applied to state and local governments. Separate but equal Principle upheld in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) in which the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public facilities was legal. Separation of powers Constitutional division of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, with the legislative branch making law, the executive applying and enforcing the law, and the judiciary interpreting the law Shays' Rebellion Rebellion led by Daniel Shays of farmers in western Massachusetts in 1786-1787, protesting mortgage foreclosures. It highlighted the need for a strong national government just as the call for the Constitutional Convention went out. Slander Spoken defamation Social Contract Theory The view that people's moral and/or political obligation are dependent upon a contract or agreement among them to form the society in which they live. People are free and equal by natural right, and that this in turn requires that all people give their consent to be governed; espoused by John Locke and influential in the writing of the declaration of independence. Stamp Act 1765; law that taxed printed goods, including: playing cards, documents, newspapers, etc. States' rights the rights and powers held by individual US states rather than by the federal government. Sugar Act (1764) British deeply in debt partl to French & Indian War. English Parliament placed a tariff on sugar, coffee, wines, and molasses. colonists avoided the tax by smuggling and by bribing tax collectors. Totalitarian system a system of rule in which the government recognizes no formal limits on its power and seeks to absorb or eliminate other social institutions that might challenge it Tyranny of the majority The potential of a majority to monopolize power for its own gain to the detriment of minority rights and interests. Unitary system a centralized government system in which lower levels of government have little power independent of national government Virginia Plan a framework for the Constitution, introduced by Edmund Randolph, that called for representation in the national legislature based on the population of each state Women's rights Antebellum reform led by Mott and Stanton leads to Seneca Falls Convention. Opposed the idea of the Cult of Domesticity (women should be housewives). Women now have the right to vote, own property, and work Agency representation type of representation in which a representative is held accountable to a constituency Amicus Curiae briefs "friend of the court"; individuals or groups who seek to assist the Supreme Court in reaching a decision by presenting additional briefs Appellate jurisdiction Authority of court to review a decision of a lower court or administrative agency. Appropriations the process, occurring after every decimal census, that allocates congressional seats among the 50 states Apportionment the amount of money approved by Congress in statutes (bills) that each unit of agency of government can spend Authorization A formal declaration by a legislative committee that a certain amount of funding may be available to an agency. Some authorizations terminate in a year; others are renewable automatically without further congressional action. Bicameral A legislature consisting of two parts, or houses Cabinet the secretaries, or chief administrators, of the major departments of the federal government; Cabinet secretaries are appointed by the President with the consensus of the Senate Caucus a normally closed political party business meeting of citizens, plan strategy, or make decisions regarding legislative matters Civil Law the branch of law that deals with disrupts that do not involve criminal penalties Civil service A system of hiring and promotion based on the merit principle and the desire to create a nonpartisan government service. Cloture a rule or process in a legislative body aimed at ending debate on a given bill Commander-in- chief Title for the president who holds supreme command of the armed forces Concurrence The agreement of a judge with the court's majority decision, for a reason other than the majority reason. Conference committee Committee appointed by the presiding officers of each chamber (House and Senate) to adjust differences on a particular bill passed by each in different form. Contracting power the power of government to set conditions on companies seeking to sell good or services to government agencies Courts of Appeals a court that hears the appeals of trial court decisions Criminal law the branch of law that regulates the conduct of individual, defines crimes, and specifies punishment for acts defined as illegal Delegated powers constitutional powers given to/assigned to one governmental group but can be exercised by other group with express permission Department the largest subunit of the executive branch; the secretaries of the 15 departments from the Cabinet Devolution a policy to remove programs from one level of government and pass it one to another Dissent Disagreement Due process the right of every citizen against arbitrary action by national or state government  The government must act fairly and in accord with established rules in all that it does online professional tutoring is getting better and better each day. At www.acemy-homework.com, the proficiency in offering help to students on their college diverse needs from higher learning institutions across the globe has been tested and proven. www.acemy-homework.com not only assist students through a virtual platform but also provide a platform for you as the client to converse with your tutor in real-time. When it comes to service provision, Acemy-homework.com is an unmatched website. Register at www.acemy-homework.com today and begin an exciting journey in academic proficiency. Earmarks "Hidden" congressional provisions that direct the federal government to fund specific projects or that exempt specific persons or groups from paying specific federal taxes or fees Executive agreements agreement made between president and another country, that has the force of a treaty but does not require the Senate's "advice and consent" Executive office of the President the permanent agencies that perform defined management tasks for the president Executive orders Formal orders issued by the president to direct action by the federal bureaucracy. Filibuster tactic used by the Senate to prevent action on legislation they oppose Going public the act of launching a media campaign to build popular support Government corporations A government agency that operates like a business corporation, created to secure greater freedom of action and flexibility for a particular program. Hyper partisanship A commitment to party so strong it can transcend other commitments Implied powers Powers not specifically mentioned in the constitution Incumbency already holding an office Independent agencies agencies in the executive branch of the federal government formed by Congress to help enforce laws and regulations not covered by the executive departmentsOnline professional tutoring has never been this effective. At www.acemy-homework.com, the proficiency in offering help to students on their college assignments from higher learning institutions across the globe has been tested and proven. www.acemy-homework.com not only assist students through a virtual platform but also provide a platform for you as the client to converse with your tutor in real time. When it comes to service provision, Acemy-homework.com is an unmatched website. Register at www.acemy-homework.com today and begin an exciting journey in academic proficiency. Iron triangle A close relationship between an agency, a congressional committee, and an interest group Judicial activism An interpretation of the U.S. constitution holding that the spirit of the times and the needs of the nation can legitimately influence judicial decisions (particularly decisions of the Supreme Court) Judicial review Allows the court to determine the constitutionality of laws Judicial restraint A judicial philosophy in which judges play minimal policymaking roles, leaving that duty strictly to the legislatures Jurisdiction (n.) an area of authority or control; the right to administer justice Leadership PACs Political action committees that are separate from the officeholder's campaign organization Logrolling An agreement by two or more lawmakers to support each other's bills Majority Leader The legislative leader selected by the majority party who helps plan party strategy, confers with other party leaders, and tries to keep members of the party in line. Majority opinion A court opinion reflecting the views of the majority of the judges Merit system hiring people into government jobs on the basis of their qualifications Minority Leader Leader of the minority party in a legislature Office of Management and Budget Executive office responsible for helping the President write the federal budget and monitoring federal spending. Oral argument legal argument made by each attorney in proceedings before the court in an attempt to persuade the court to decide the issue in their client's favor Original jurisdiction The jurisdiction of courts that hear a case first, usually in a trial. These are the courts that determine the facts about a case. Oversight Congressional review of the activities of an executive agency, department, or office. Plea bargain Agreement between a prosecutor and a defendant that the defendant will plead guilty to a lesser offense to avoid having to stand trial for a more serious offense. Pocket veto A veto taking place when Congress adjourns within 10 days of submitting a bill to the president, who simply lets it die by neither signing nor vetoing it. Pork-barrel legislation legislation that gives tangible benefits to constituents in several districts or states in the hope of winning their votes in return Precedent an example that may serve as a basis for imitation or later action Private bill A legislative bill that deals only with specific, private, personal, or local matters Privatization process of converting government enterprises into privately owned companies Regulatory agencies A department, bureau, or independent agency whose primary mission is to impose limits, restrictions, or other obligations on the conduct of individuals or companies in the private sector. Rule of Four Requirement that a case can only be heard by the Supreme Court if four justices vote to hear the case Senatorial courtesy Presidential custom of submitting the names of prospective appointees for approval to senators from the states in which the appointees are to work. Seniority Unwritten rule in both houses of Congress reserving committee chairs to members of the committee with the longest records of continuous service. Signing statements pronouncements of how the president intends to interpret and apply a law when he signs a bill into law Sociological representation The idea of ______ identifies the best representative as the one who shares a similar racial, ethnic, religious, or occupational background with those he or she represents. Solicitor General The solicitor general is responsible for handling all appeals on behalf of the United States government to the Supreme Court. Speaker of the House An office mandated by the Constitution. The Speaker is chosen in practice by the majority party, has both formal and informal powers, and is second in line to succeed to the presidency should that office become vacant. Standing committee A permanent committee established in a legislature, usually focusing on a policy area Stare decisis A common law doctrine under which judges are obligated to follow the precedents established in prior decisions Supremacy clause Article VI of the Constitution, which makes the Constitution, national laws, and treaties supreme over state laws when the national government is acting within its constitutional limits. Supreme Court Final federal appellate court ("court of last resort"). Hears appeals from Circuit Courts (certiorari petition / rule of 4). Only hears "important" constitutional cases. Trial court Court of original jurisdiction where cases begin Veto Chief executive's power to reject a bill passed by a legislature Whip system an organization of House leaders who work to disseminate information and promote party unity in voting on legislation White House staff Personnel who run the White House and advise the President. Includes the Chief of Staff and Press Secretary Writ of certiorari A formal writ used to bring a case before the Supreme Court. Writ of habeas corpus A court order that requires police to bring a prisoner to court to explain why they are holding the person Loose construction means that the constitution gives the Federal government broad powers to do what is necessary Strict construction means that the federal government has very limited powers Patronage granting favors or giving contracts or making appointments to office in return for political support Injunction prevents someone from taking an action to violate someone else's rights Sovereignty having the ultimate authority over a territory, with the absolute right to govern. A sovereign state is one that governs itself, independent of any foreign power, with the full authority to make war or peace and to form treaties or alliances with foreign nations. Balance of power a state of stability between competing forces. In international relations, it refers to equilibrium among countries or alliances to prevent any one entity from becoming too strong and, thus, gaining the ability to enforce its will upon the rest. Gerrymandering a practice in setting electoral districts intended to establish a political advantage for a particular party or group by manipulating district boundaries. Political socialization the study of the developmental processes by which people of all ages and adolescents acquire political cognition, attitudes, and behaviors. It is the process by which people form their ideas about politics Interest group theory believes that many different interests compete to control government policy, and that their conflicting interests can balance out each other to provide good government. Social contract theory the view that people's' moral and/or political obligation are dependent upon a contract or agreement among them to form the society in which they live. Aristotle politics is defined as a "practical science" because it deals with making citizens happy. His philosophy is to find the supreme purpose of life. To him, one of the most important roles of a politician is to make laws, or constitutions. Niccolo Machiavelli believed strongly in realpolitik, or doing what was best for the state and the good of its population rather than any ruling family or individual. The machiavellian intelligence theory is a social theory that hypothesizes that the increase in brain size during human evolution from primates occurred due to humans working in groups. This group work in turn causes humans and primates to think about complex issues and relationships. Thomas Hobbes believed that the only true and correct form of government was the absolute monarchy. He argued this in his work, Leviathan This stemmed from the central tenet of Hobbes' natural philosophy that human beings are, at their core, selfish creatures. John Locke 17th century English philosopher who opposed the Divine Right of Kings and who asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property. Major figure in the social contract theory. The father of liberalism, defended the claim that man are by nature free and equal against claims that god had made all people naturally subject to a monarch. He also defends the principle of majority rules and the separation of legislative and executive powers. Montesquieu famous for his theory of separation of powers in government. This was a major contribution to the writing of the US constitution. Karl Marx main ideas are labor theory of value, class struggle, alienation and communism. Views human history as a struggle between social classes and asserts that capitalism is inherently exploitative. Marxists believe that the transition from capitalism to socialism is an inevitable part of the development of human society Ghandi Gandhism is a body of ideas of that describes the inspiration, vision and the life work of Gandhi. It is particularly associated with his contributions to the idea of nonviolent resistance, sometimes also called civil resistance. The two pillars of gandhism are truth and non-violence. Orwell a novelist and critic marked by lucid prose, awareness of social injustice, opposition to totalitarianism, and outspoken support of democratic socialism. Mandela he cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. Member of the African national Congress party Monarchy a system of government in which one person reigns, usually a king or queen. The authority, or crown, in a monarchy is generally inherited. The ruler, or monarch, is often only the head of state, not the head of government. Many monarchies, such as Britain and Denmark are actually governed by parliaments. Oligarchy government by the few, especially despotic power exercised by a small and privileged group for corrupt or selfish purposes. Representative democracy a system of government in which all eligible citizens vote on representatives to pass laws for them. A perfect example is the U.S. where we elect a president and members of the Congress Online professional tutoring is getting better and better each day. At www.acemy-homework.com, the proficiency in offering help to students on their college diverse needs from higher learning institutions across the globe has been tested and proven. www.acemy-homework.com not only assist students through a virtual platform but also provide a platform for you as the client to converse with your tutor in real-time. When it comes to service provision, Acemy-homework.com is an unmatched website. Register at www.acemy-homework.com today and begin an exciting journey in academic proficiency. Direct democracy form of government in which people decide policy initiatives directly. This differs from the majority of modern democracies, which are representative democracies Authoritarian one ruler or a small group of leaders have the real power. Authoritarian governments may hold elections and they may have contact with their citizens, but citizens do not have any voice in how they are ruled. Totalitarianism refers to a political system in which all authority is in the hands of a state. In a totalitarian society, all control of public and private life are government run. Magna Carta established the principle that everyone is subject to the law, even the king, and guarantees the rights of individuals, the right to justice and the right to a fair trial. Signed by King John by force. England, before this, was mainly operating as a feudal system of land ownership. English Bill of Rights passed by parliament of england in 1689. Creates separation of powers, limits powers of king and queen, enhances the democratic election, and bolsters freedom of speech Mayflower Compact the first agreement for self-government to be created and enforced in America. It was drafted and signed aboard the Mayflower on November 21, 1620. It was modeled after a Separatist church covenant. It established a "Civil Body Politic" (a temporary government) until one could be permanently established Declaration of Independence first, it contains the ideals or goals of our nation, second it contains the complaints of the colonists against the British king, third, it contains the arguments Articles of Confederation first constitution of the US adopted on November 15, 1777. It is important because it united the individual states and established the federal government. until 1789 Online professional tutoring has never been this effective. At www.acemy-homework.com, the proficiency in offering help to students on their college assignments from higher learning institutions across the globe has been tested and proven. www.acemy-homework.com not only assist students through a virtual platform but also provide a platform for you as the client to converse with your tutor in real time. When it comes to service provision, Acemy-homework.com is an unmatched website. Register at www.acemy-homework.com today and begin an exciting journey in academic proficiency.